Americas Black People are the Black Paleo-americans; these are the first Human inhabitants of the Hemisphere.
Paleo-americans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. Evidences of their habitation is found with 9,600 year-old Kennewick man in Washington State U.S., 11,500 year-old Luzia in Brazil, and 12,000 year-old Naia in Mexico.
These people are believed to have come from Australia and the Pacific Islands as early as 50,000 years ago: as indicated by human remains and hearths at Pedra Furada in Brazil. Next into the American Hemisphere were the “Clovis culture” migrants from Asia, circa 12,000 years ago. At this time Asia was inhabited by Blacks of Negroid phenotype and Mongol phenotype, so it can be assumed that Asian Blacks of both kinds crossed over to the Americas at this time.
Racially, a complicating factor is Asia’s Albinos (Caucasian and Mongol phenotype): we know that the Chinese people have steadily become lighter (and more Caucasian phenotype) over just the last few millennia, so that today, they cannot even be called the “Yellow” race: today there is a definite “Pink” tinge to the Chinese people.
Not surprisingly, picture and ceramic artifacts, as well as European’s written descriptions of first contacts, tell us that Pre-Columbian North America: Mexico, the United States, and Canada, was inhabited by Black Indians and “Dark Brown” Indians, who inspired the term “Red Man”: (as dark brown people become “Red hued” after extended time in the Sun).
But the fact of Asia’s Albinos makes it impossible to determine if Americas “light skinned and even White looking” Indians of the “Early European period” are descendants of the original Clovis people, or the result of “Admixture” with Europeans.
Likewise, it is impossible to determine the linage of North Americas Black Indians, their phenotype is both Straight haired and Curly haired. But Black Asians are both Straight haired and Curly haired: as Black Australians are Straight haired, and Black Tasmanians were Curly haired, therefore no conclusion can be drawn.
Whichever the case, they both suffered the same fate: When the Albino Europeans came, the Mongol Americans whom the Black Americans had hegemony over, allied themselves with the Albino Europeans, and brought down the Black Empires in the Americas.
For Mexico, the Albinos used to tell the story that 600 Spanish conquistadors defeated the Aztec Army. Now they admit that perhaps 50,000 Indians were allies of the Spanish in the battle for the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán. Once the Albinos admit that the Aztec were a Black people, that will be their first true history. As with the Aztec in Mexico, the Black Inca in Peru were brought down by Mongol type Indians allied with the Spanish.
At the time, the Indians had not yet learned that the Albino man speaks with a “Forked tongue”: naturally the Albinos reneged on all of their promises to the Mongol Indians, which prompted the Indians to actually “SUE” the Spanish in Spanish courts, for the benefits they were promised – they lost.
The suit is documented in: Litigation over the Rights of “Natural Lords” in Early Colonial Courts in the Andes, by JOHN V. MURRA – INSTITUTE OF ANDEAN RESEARCH.
Today in the U.S, Mongol type Indians and their Mulatto and Albino brethren, often try to oust Blacks from their tribes, so as to selfishly deprive them of benefits from government programs earmarked for Indians. Of course, Black Native Americans were routinely enslaved.
The next Black people into the Americas were Black Europeans, who had just recently lost their hegemony in Europe. Beginning in the 1500s, Europe’s Albinos rebelled against Black rule, and the then, Black Catholic Church: culminating in the “Thirty Years Wars” (1618–1648) which for all practical purposes ended Black rule in Europe, and killed off huge numbers of Europe’s Blacks.
The survivors of the “Thirty Years Wars” as well as the British “Civil” Wars, were expelled to the Caribbean and North America as Indentured Servants, and outright Slaves.
The Churches that came out of that Albino rebellion are called the Protestant (Protest) Churches, they are: Adventism, Anabaptism, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Calvinism (Reformed tradition), Lutheranism, Methodism, Pentecostalism. Other Protestant branches: Transdenominational movements, Evangelicalism, Charismatic Movement, Neo-charismatic churches.
Another outcome of the Albinos rebellion in Europe is the Albinos attempt to revise history, and write Blacks out of history: to be replaced by themselves in place of Blacks. For that reason, it is impossible to say who were the first Black Europeans in the Americas.
Example: eight months after the last Moorish city of “Granada Spain” fell: it was in the nearby town of Palos Spain, on the evening of August 3, 1492, that Christopher Columbus would depart on his journey to the Americas.
One result of which, would be the African Atlantic Slave trade. But at this time, there was still hundreds of thousands of Black Moors in Spain and Portugal, not to mention the native Blacks of Portugal and Spain: note that King Ferdinand is a Mulatto (you can’t make mulattoes without Blacks)! Therefore it is safe to assume that a goodly percentage of Columbus’s crew were Blacks too.
The Black Scots
The first foreign born Blacks in Virginia (as opposed to Native American Blacks) were probably the Black Scotsman of Virginia, who were defeated by Oliver Cromwell in his invasions of Scotland in the 1600s.
They are detailed in the book: ” White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America by Colin G. Calloway”. Quote from the book: When Oliver Cromwell defeated the Scots at Worcester, Cromwell transported hundreds of Scots prisoners as indentured servants to Virginia and the West Indies”
The fact that these Scotsman were Black men is confirmed by many publications of those times: and is detailed by quotes from them: The Journal of a tour to the Hebrides, with Samuel Johnson – by James Boswell 1810 edition. (It should be noted that apparently all versions after 1810, and the “Project Gutenberg” version, have all had references to Blacks deleted, so care should be taken in which version you use).
Quote: There was great diversity in the faces of the circle around us: Some were as black and wild in their appearance as any American savages whatever. One woman was as comely almost as the figure of Sappho, as we see it painted.
A Description of THE WESTERN ISLANDS of Scotland (CIRCA 1695) By Martin Martin, Gent.
Quote: The Complexion of the Islanders of the Isle of Arran, Quote: The inhabitants of this isle are well proportioned, generally brown, and some of a black complexion.
It was Thomas Cromwell who destroyed all evidences of Black Rule in Britain.
Article from the Daily Telegraph Media Group Limited 2015
Main Quote: No one can be sure of the exact figure, but it is estimated that the destruction started and legalized by Cromwell amounted to 97% of the English art then in existence.
Statues were hacked down. Frescoes were smashed to bits. Mosaics were pulverized. Illuminated manuscripts were shredded. Wooden carvings were burned. Precious metalwork was melted down. Shrines were reduced to rubble. This vandalism went way beyond a religious reform.
It was a frenzy, obliterating the artistic patrimony of centuries of indigenous craftsmanship with an intensity of hatred for imagery and depicting the divine that has strong and resonant parallels today.
The United States War of Independence (1775–1783)-The Black Loyalists
When the American Revolutionary War started, many Black British did the opposite of Crispus Attucks, they remained loyal to the British side. The British recognized early the opportunity to weaken the rebellion by encouraging the slaves of rebelling British citizens to run away and join the British side.
- Quote: And I hereby further declare all indented servants, Negroes, or others (appertaining to Rebels) free, that are able and willing to bear arms, they joining His Majesty’s Troops, as soon as may be, for the
- more speedily reducing the Colony to a proper sense of their duty, to this Majesty’s crown and dignity. The units formed by these Black Loyalists included ‘Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment’ and a Black mounted cavalry established in Virginia in 1782. Black soldiers took part in active combat, and were used as shock troops. Because of their knowledge of the terrain, some also acted as guides for the British troops, and others fulfilled a variety of roles, working (among other things) as sailors, miners, nurses and laborer’s.
- Dunmore’s Proclamation, also known as Dunmore’s “Emancipation Proclamation,” is a historical document signed on November 7, 1775, by John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia. The proclamation declared martial law and promised freedom for slaves of American revolutionaries who left their owners and joined the royal forces.Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation
When the defeated British withdrew from New York, Charleston and Savannah at the end of the war in 1783, an estimated 60,000 Loyalists went with them, including at least 14,000 Black men (no numbers from other ports).
Some went to Nova Scotia, in Canada, or to the West Indies, but most traveled to Britain. They were condemned as traitors by the United States Assembly, which passed an Act of confiscation, depriving both Black and White Loyalists of their property.
The African-Americans arriving in Britain were refugees who had left everything behind, and they frequently found themselves in poverty. A small number of them – the minority who had held some property in America, most of whom were free-born – applied to a new Parliamentary commission for compensation.
The registers of the commission record the applications of 47 Black and 5,000 White claimants. The documents show that Black Loyalists were often denied relief – and when they were granted money, the amounts awarded were almost always lower than those given to even the poorest White Loyalists.
The commissioners justified their decisions on the grounds that Black claimants rarely had documentary evidence or ‘reliable witnesses’ to support their claims for compensation, while in many cases White Loyalists were able to provide such proof.
The pension examiners, giving reasons for their judgments in the ‘Decision’ section of the case records, suggested that ‘the Blacks should think themselves fortunate to have gained their liberty…’ and cast doubt on their claims to be free-born.
It seems that in many cases the commission was suggesting that the freedom granted by Lord Dunmore’s proclamation was sufficient reward for Black Loyalists and that they were entitled to nothing more – despite the fact that Black men had risked life and limb for the British Crown, that many had left their families behind, and that many now faced poverty in Britain.
Note: some of them wound up in the African nation of Sierra Leone. Note: for the purposes of our calculations, we will ignore the Blacks who left the United States after the British defeat.http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/work_community/loyalists.htm
Strangely we don’t even know when the first “Regular Route” slave ship from Africa arrived in the United States. The 1619 landing was a lie and has been debunked, but come they did. Nobody knows how many slaves were imported from Africa. Some say as little as 200,000-300,000, Wiki says 645,000. Independent Researchers who have studied the slave trade itself, like Hugh Thomas, gives the total number of African slaves imported into the US (and British Colonial North America) as 500,000 persons. Emory University (The Voyages Database) in their calculations, places the number for all of North America at 365,977 Africans imported to North America between the years 1626 and 1866, a total of 240 years.
Some people, Blacks mostly, quote W.E.B. DuBois figure of 100 million African Slaves exported to the Americas. In his book, The Negro, DuBois wrote:
The exact proportions of the slave trade can be estimated only approximately. Probably every slave imported represented on the average, five corpses in Africa or on the high seas. The American slave trade, therefore, meant the elimination of at least 60,000,000 Negroes from their fatherland.
The Mohammedan slave trade meant the expatriation or forcible migration in Africa of nearly as many more. It would be conservative, then, to say that the slave trade cost Negro Africa 100,000,000 souls.
And yet people ask to-day the cause of the stagnation of culture in that land since 1600! Such a large number of slaves could be supplied only by organized slave raiding in every comer of Africa. The African continent gradually became revolutionized.
Whole regions were depopulated, whole tribes disappeared; villages were built in caves and on bills or in forest fastnesses; the character of peoples like those of Benin developed their worst excesses of cruelty instead of the already flourishing arts of peace. The dark, irresistible grasp of fetish took firmer hold on men’s minds.
W.E.B. DuBois numbers and scenario are of course hysterical, with no apparent foundation except his imagination. (Beyond the wild claims: W.E.B. DuBois actual number for African Slaves Exported to the Americas was 10 million).
Emory University – Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database.
- History of the Project
From the late 1960s, Herbert S. Klein and other scholars began to collect archival data on slave-trading voyages from unpublished sources and to code them into a machine-readable format.
In the 1970s and 1980s, scholars created a number of slave ship datasets, several of which the current authors chose to recode from the primary sources rather than integrate the datasets of those scholars into the present set. By the late 1980s, there were records of approximately 11,000 individual trans-Atlantic voyages in sixteen separate datasets, not all of which were trans-Atlantic, nor, as it turned out, slave voyages.
- The idea of creating a single multisource dataset of trans-Atlantic slave voyages emerged from a chance meeting of David Eltis and Stephen Behrendt in the British Public Record Office in 1990 while they were working independently on the early and late British slave trades. At about the same time, David Richardson was taking over detailed multisource work on the large mid-eighteenth-century Liverpool shipping business begun years earlier by Maurice Schofield. All this work, together with the Bristol volumes that Richardson had already published, made it seem feasible to integrate the records for the very large British slave trade for the first time, and beyond that, given the available Dutch, French, and PortugueseSlave Demography
- Robert William Fogel – Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery, calculates that the birthrate for Slave women was 6.2 children per lifetime (this is live births, exclusive of the many unsuccessful pregnancies). Of course, once the Slave child is born, the hardships are just beginning.
- Childhood and Transatlantic Slavery by Steven Mintz, Columbia University.
- Quote: Infant and child mortality rates were twice as high among slave children as among southern white children. A major contributor to the high infant and child death rate was chronic undernourishment. Slave-owners showed surprisingly little concern for slave mothers’ health or diet during pregnancy, providing pregnant women with no extra rations and employing them in intensive field work even in the last week before they gave birth.
- 2) Birth weights and infant mortality among American slaves by Steckel RH
Quote: This study is concerned with the ongoing debate regarding the health and mortality of slaves that started with the publication of “Time on the Cross”. The author argues that living standards of slave children in the United States were poor. Using data from the records of the coastal trade in slaves from the early nineteenth century, it is shown that newborns of slaves weighed on average less than 5.5 pounds and that the infant mortality rate was around 30 to 40 percent.
- 3) SLAVECHILD MORTALITY: SOME NUTRITIONAL ANSWERS TO A PERENNIAL PUZZLE. Bowling Green State Univ. Kenneth F. Kiple, Virginia H. Kiple
Conclusion: A high incidence of slave child, and particularly slave infant, mortality relative to their white antebellum counterparts has proved to be a continuing source of frustration for students of the peculiar institution. As many as three infants out of every ten died before reaching their first birthday, and close to half perished before age ten. Note; these vile disgusting racists seek to place the blame for these deaths on Quote: “A conspiracy of nutrition, African environmental heritage, and North American climatic circumstances rather than planter mistreatment.”
Contrary to Albino depictions of Slavery, which are primarily concerned with beatings: the Slaves life was one of almost total and complete depravity. It is a wonder that any of them survived, much less, as long as they did – which wasn’t very long at all.
- The first United States census was in 1790, at that time there were 697,697 Slaves in the 13 United States.
- The United States has always been loath to admit that Whites were also enslaved. The 1850 census is the only time that they admitted that there was White slaves, and counted them separately.
- What happened to the Yuchi Indians was typical for Black Native Americans.
- The Yuchi, also spelled Euchee and Uchee, are people of a Native American tribe who traditionally lived in the eastern Tennessee River valley in Tennessee in the 16th century. The Yuchi were well known mound builders. During the 17th century, they moved south to Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina. After suffering many fatalities due to epidemic disease and warfare in the 18th century, several surviving Yuchi were removed to Indian Territory in the 1830s, together with their allies the Muscogee Creek. (Some who remained in the South were classified as “free persons of color”: others were enslaved). Some remnant groups migrated to Florida, where they became part of the recently formed Seminole Tribe of Florida.
- The first United States census was in 1790, at that time there were 697,697 Slaves in the 13 United States.
The other source was Europe: where continental Albinos and the British, were still expelling Blacks.Remembering that the “Thirty Years Wars” ended in 1648, the doings of the ship “Jamaica Galley” – Rotterdam to Cowes in England, to Philadelphia 7 February 1738. And ship Glasgow, Walter Sterling Commander – from Rotterdam but last from Cowes in England: And Ship Marlborough, Thomas Bell, Master. Qualified Sept. 23, 1741. From Rotterdam, but last from Cowes, carried a cargo of Palatine Males (Electoral Palatinate or County Palatine of the Rhine, a historic state of the Black Holy Roman Empire), is typical of British ships picking up Blacks from continual Europe, then picking up more from Britain, and then dumping them in the Americas.In the case of those taken to Philadelphia, they would be free men, but they were required to take this oath: * Oath of Allegiance: We Subscribers Natives and late Inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine and places adjacent, having transported our Selves and Families into the Province of Pennsylvania, a Colony Subject to the Crown of Great Britain, in hopes and expectation of finding a retreat and peaceable Settlement therein DO solemnly promise and engage that we will be faithfull and bear true Allegiance to his present Majesty King George the Second and his Successon Kings of Great Britain and will be faithfull to the Proprietor of this Province and that we will demean our Selves peaceably to all his Majesties Subjects, and Strictly observe and conform to the Laws of England and of this Province to the utmost of our power and best of our understanding. (Original spelling).
- Having established where the Black people of the United States of Americas came from:
- We wish to calculate what percentage of modern Black United States citizens Africans represent: Since they are now known as “African Americans”. But try as we might, we cannot find accurate data by which to make our calculations. So rather than jumping through hoops, lets just use the numbers that we know for sure from the Emory database, to calculate the African percentage of the 1870 census Black population (we assume that moving forward 4 years will not appreciably effect our result).
- We know that by 1866: 365,977 African Slaves had landed in North America. It has been logically determined that because of their poor treatment and health, Slave populations could not appreciably increase.
- We know that just 4 years later in 1870, the Black population of the United States is 4,880,009 people.
- 365,977/4,880,009 = 0.074995 X 100 = 7.4995% (round to 7.5%).
- African Immigration
- Several laws enforcing national origins quotas on American immigration were enacted between 1921 and 1924 and were in effect until they were repealed in 1965. While these laws were aimed at restricting the immigration of Jews and Catholics from central and eastern Europe and immigration from Asia, they also impacted African immigrants. This legislation effectively excluded Africans from entering the country. From the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 to 2007, an estimated total of 0.8 to 0.9 million Africans immigrated to the United States, accounting for roughly 3.3% of total immigration to the United States during this period.
- Since African immigration was not allowed until modern times (1965), but Black migration to the United States from the Caribbean and Latin America kept increasing, the percentage represented by Africans in the total Black population could only DECREASE over time from 1866 (1870) until 1965, when the ban was lifted. But even then, the 7.5 percentage would still only get smaller over time, even after 1965, because migration to the United States from the Caribbean and Latin America always increases, regardless of law.
- That means that only 1 out of every 13.3 Black Americans was an African in 1870:
- there is no telling what that number is today, but it would likely be considerably smaller
- due to continual immigration of Native Americans from Latin America.
- If less than 1 out of every 13.3 modern Black Americans (in the U.S.) are of African extraction:
- Then where did the myth of Black African Americans come from?
- And why don’t Blacks in the U.S. know their true history?
- Firstly, many Blacks in the Northern U.S. and the Caribbean do have an inklings of their true history: through tales passed down through the generations, or in rare cases, by annotations in family Bibles: these were of course “Free Blacks”. The Slave family was rarely a family at all: It consisted of a woman whose spouse was often absent (for reasons beyond his control): He was sold or rented out, he was dead etc. The Slave woman raised her children only with the help of other Slave women in the same situation. Then after she had raised her children to adulthood, or thereabouts, they were routinely sold. Clearly there was no opportunity for Slaves to pass down their family history from generation to generation, or even care about their family history, they were interested in survival! For the Slave, the only credible source of information was his master, so whatever his master told him he was, that’s what he believed he was, and that’s what he told others.
- What about the Black abolitionist of the 1800s, did they call themselves Africans?
- Frederick Douglass – was an escaped slave: Wiki quote: He was of mixed race, which likely included Native American on his mother’s side as well as African and European. He spoke of his earliest times with his mother: “The opinion was … whispered that my master was my father; but of the correctness of this opinion I know nothing…. My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant…. It was common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a very early age.
- In the case of Frederick, he had no way of knowing, and we wonder where the information about his linage quote in Wiki came from.
- Another factor in spreading the myth of Black African Americans was:
- The Great Migration:
- The Great Migration, or the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from 1916 to 1970, had a huge impact on urban life in the United States. Driven from their homes by unsatisfactory economic opportunities and harsh segregationist laws, many blacks headed north, where they took advantage of the need for industrial workers that first arose during the First World War. As Chicago, New York and other cities saw their black populations expand exponentially, migrants were forced to deal with poor working conditions and competition for living space, as well as widespread racism and prejudice. During the Great Migration, African Americans began to build a new place for themselves in public life, actively confronting economic, political and social challenges and creating a new black urban culture that would exert enormous influence in the decades to come.
- Black Americans in 1960
- The statistics were grim for black Americans in 1960. Their average life-span was seven years less than white Americans’. Their children had only half the chance of completing high school, only a third the chance of completing college, and a third the chance of entering a profession when they grew up. On average, black Americans earned half as much as white Americans and were twice as likely to be unemployed.
- Despite a string of court victories during the late 1950s, many black Americans were still second-class citizens. Six years after the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision, only 49 southern school districts had desegregated, and less than 1.2 percent of black schoolchildren in the 11 states of the old Confederacy attended public school with white classmates. Less than a quarter of the South’s black population of voting age could vote In certain Southern counties blacks could not vote, serve on grand juries and trial juries, or frequent all-white beaches, restaurants, and hotels.
- In the North, too, black Americans suffered humiliation, insult, embarrassment, and discrimination. Many neighborhoods, businesses, and unions almost totally excluded blacks. Just as black unemployment had increased in the South with the mechanization of cotton production, black unemployment in Northern cities soared as labor-saving technology eliminated many semiskilled and unskilled jobs that historically had provided many blacks with work. Black families experienced severe strain; the proportion of black families headed by women jumped from 8 percent in 1950 to 21 percent in 1960. “If you’re white, you’re right” a black folk saying declared; “if you’re brown stick around; if you’re black, stay back.”
- So you had this massive movement of people who might have been descendants of African Slaves, or had been taught that they were Africans, moving into areas were the people there might have at one time known better. But when confronted by so many other people claiming to be African, after a while, they began to believe that they too were African. This kind of communal “Coming Together” was particularly prevalent during the “Civil Rights” and “Black Power” periods.
- Those who went through those times, recall that there was great pressure to accept your “Africanness”. So most everybody did, even those who had never thought of themselves as Africans before.
- Why do the European Albinos want you to believe that you are an African?
- Two reasons:
- 1) To instill in you the concept of yourself: that you are primitive, and incapable of high achievement. Note that for hundreds of years, the Albinos claimed that ancient Egyptians were White – they still claim that the other great civilizations were White.
- Note any anti-Black media source: the first thing the Albinos say is that Africans are primitive, animalistic, low IQ, and incapable of achievement. Not true, but that is the Albino line.
- 2) To keep you from thinking and researching about what really happened in Europe and the Americas:
- Both are horrendous cases of Genocide against Blacks, carried out by the Albinos!
- So did the great Black leaders of Slavery times call themselves Africans or African Americans?
- Granville Tailer Woods (1856 – 1910) was an African-American inventor who held more than 50 patents. He is also the first American of African ancestry to be a mechanical and electrical engineer after the Civil War. Self-taught, he concentrated most of his work on trains and streetcars. One of his notable inventions was the Multiplex Telegraph, a device that sent messages between train stations and moving trains. His work assured a safer and better public transportation system for the cities of the United States. According to some sources, Granville T. Woods was born to a mixed-race family in 1856; his mother’s name was Martha J. Brown and his father’s name was Cyrus Woods. He also had a brother named Lyates. His mother was part Indian (today referred to as Native American), and his father was black, or “Negro,” as African-Americans were called back then.
- Benjamin Banneker (1731 – 1806) was a free African American scientist, surveyor, almanac author and farmer. Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, to a free African American woman and a former slave. Benjamin Banneker was born on November 9, 1731, in Baltimore County, Maryland to his mother Mary, a free black, and his father Robert, a freed slave from Guinea. There are two conflicting accounts of Banneker’s family history. Banneker himself and his earliest biographers described him as having only African ancestry. None of Banneker’s surviving papers describe a white ancestor or identify the name of his grandmother. However, later biographers have contended that Banneker’s mother was the child of Molly Welsh, a white indentured servant, and an African slave named Banneka.
- Mary McLeod Bethune (1875 – 1955) Mary Jane McLeod was born in 1875 in a small log cabin near Mayesville, South Carolina, on a rice and cotton farm in Sumter County. She was the fifteenth of seventeen children born to Sam and Patsy McIntosh McLeod, both former slaves. Most of her siblings were born into slavery.
- George Washington Carver (1860 – 1943), was an American botanist and inventor. The exact day and year of his birth are unknown; he was born into slavery in Missouri, either in 1861, or January 1864.
- William Edward Burghardt “W. E. B.” Du Bois (1868 – 1963) was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, to Alfred and Mary Silvina (née Burghardt) Du Bois. Mary Silvina Burghardt’s family was part of the very small free black population of Great Barrington and had long owned land in the state. She was descended from Dutch, African and English ancestors. William Du Bois’ maternal great-great-grandfather was Tom Burghardt, a slave (born in West Africa around 1730) who was held by the Dutch colonist Conraed Burghardt. Tom briefly served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, which may have been how he gained his freedom during the 18th century. Tom’s son Jack Burghardt was the father of Othello Burghardt, who was the father of Mary Silvina Burghardt.
- Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872 – 1906) was an African-American poet, novelist, and playwright of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Born in Dayton, Ohio, to parents who had been slaves in Kentucky before the American Civil War, Dunbar started to write as a child and was president of his high school’s literary society. He published his first poems at the age of 16 in a Dayton newspaper.
- Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. (1887 – 1940) was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League. Marcus was born as the youngest of eleven children in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, to Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Sr., a mason, and Sarah Jane Richards, a domestic worker. Only his sister Indiana along with Marcus survived to adulthood. His family was financially stable given the circumstances of this time period. Garvey’s father had a large library, and it was from his father that Marcus gained his love for reading.
- Sojourner Truth (1797 – 1883) was an African-American abolitionist and women’s rights activist. Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, Ulster County, New York, but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826. After going to court to recover her son, in 1828 she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man. She gave herself the name Sojourner Truth in 1843. Her best-known speech was delivered extemporaneously, in 1851, at the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. The speech became widely known during the Civil War by the title “Ain’t I a Woman?,” a variation of the original speech re-written by someone else using a stereotypical Southern dialect; whereas Sojourner Truth was from New York and grew up speaking Dutch as her first language. Truth was one of the ten or twelve children born to James and Elizabeth Baumfree (or Bomefree). Colonel Hardenbergh bought James and Elizabeth Baumfree from slave traders and kept their family at his estate in a big hilly area called by the Dutch name Swartekill (just north of present-day Rifton), in the town of Esopus, New York
- Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross c. 1822 – March 10, 1913) was an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and, during the American Civil War, a Union spy. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made some thirteen missions to rescue approximately seventy enslaved family and friends, using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. She later helped abolitionist John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women’s suffrage.
- Sarah Breedlove (1867 – 1919), known as Madam C. J. Walker, was an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and the first female self-made millionaire in America. She made her fortune by developing and marketing a line of beauty and hair products for black women under the company she founded, Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company. Sarah was born on December 23, 1867 in Delta, Louisiana. She was one of six children; she had a sister, Louvenia, and four brothers: Alexander, James, Solomon, and Owen Jr. Her parents and elder siblings were slaves on Madison Parish plantation, owned by Robert W. Burney. She was the first child in her family born into freedom after the Emancipation Proclamation was signed.
- Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856 – 1915) was an African-American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants, who were newly oppressed by disfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (1862 – 1931) was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist, sociologist, and an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented lynching in the United States, showing that it was often used as a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites, rather than being based in criminal acts by blacks, as was usually claimed by white mobs. She was active in women’s rights and the women’s suffrage movement, establishing several notable women’s organizations. Wells was a skilled and persuasive rhetorician, and traveled internationally on lecture tours. Wells was born a slave in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862, just before United States President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Her father was James Wells and her mother was Elizabeth “Lizzie” Warrenton Wells. Both parents were enslaved until freed under the Proclamation.
- Carter Godwin Woodson (1875 – 1950) was an African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Woodson was one of the first scholars to study African-American history. A founder of The Journal of Negro History in 1915, Woodson has been cited as the father of black history. In February 1926 he announced the celebration of “Negro History Week”, considered the precursor of Black History Month. Carter G. Woodson was born in Buckingham County, Virginia on December 19, 1875, the son of former slaves, James and Eliza Riddle Woodson. His father helped Union soldiers during the Civil War and moved his family to West Virginia when he heard that Huntington was building a high school for blacks.
- They were called Blacks, Negroes, or Coloreds: they had no way of knowing their linage
- SO HOW DID THIS MOST-OFTEN, FALSE TERM: “AFRICAN AMERICAN” BECOME COMMON?
- In the 20th century, many black Americans shifted from colored to Negro to black and, most recently, to African-American, sometimes within one generation. “I’ve had to check several different boxes in my lifetime,” said Donna Brazile, former Democratic campaign manager in the 2000 presidential race. “In my birth certificate I’m identified as a Negro. Then I was black. Now I readily check African-American. I have a group of friends and we call ourselves the colored girls sometimes, to remind ourselves that we aren’t too far from that, either.”
- The term African-American has crept steadily into the nation’s vocabulary since 1988, when the Rev. Jesse Jackson held a news conference to urge Americans to use it to refer to blacks. “It puts us in our proper historical context,” Jackson said then, adding in a recent interview that he still favored the term. “Every ethnic group in this country has a reference to some land base, some historical cultural base. African-Americans have hit that level of cultural maturity.”
- Polls show the number of blacks using the term has steadily increased. In a survey that year conducted by ABC and The Washington Post, 66 percent said they preferred the term black, 22 preferred African-American, 10 percent liked both terms and 2 percent had no opinion. In 2000, the Census Bureau for the first time allowed respondents to check a box that carried the heading African-American next to the term black. In 2003, a poll by the same news organizations found that 48 percent of blacks preferred the term African-American, 35 percent favored black and 17 percent liked both terms. The term has become such a fixture in the political dictionary that many white politicians, including President Bush and Senator John Kerry, his Democratic rival in 2004, favored it in their political speeches. Yet Kerry’s wife, Teresa Heinz Kerry, who is white, has referred to herself on occasion as an African-American. She was born to Portuguese parents in Mozambique.
- Today, the major contributors to the U.S. Black population, are from the Caribbean and Latin America:
- But these regions also have descendants of Black Native Americans and African Slaves.
- The following data will allow for a rudimentary analysis of the Native Black and African Black
- contributions to the United States Black population of today.
|Jean-Baptiste Debret (April 18, 1768 – June 28, 1848) was a French painter. He traveled to Brazil in March 1816 as a member of the so-called French Artistic Mission, a group of bonapartist French artists and artisans bound to creating in Rio de Janeiro an arts and crafts lyceum (Escola Real de Artes e Ofícios) under the auspices of King D. João VI and the Conde da Barca, which later became the Academia Imperial de Belas-Artes (Imperial Academy of Fine Arts) under Emperor Dom Pedro I. He established his atelier at the Imperial Academy in December 1822 and became a valued teacher in 1826.He corresponded frequently with his brother in Paris. Noticing his brother’s interest in his depiction of everyday life in Brazil, he started to sketch street scenes, local costumes and relations of the Brazilians in the period between 1816 and 1831. He took a particular interest in slavery of blacks, and in the indigenous peoples of Brazil. Together with the German painter Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802-1858) (in Brazil 1821 – 1825), his work is one of the most important graphic documentation of life in Brazil during the early decades of the 19th century.|
- The Caribbean
- Agostino Brunias (1730 – 1796) was a London-based Italian painter from Rome. Strongly associated with West Indian art, he left England at the height of his career to chronicle Dominica and the neighboring islands of the West Indies.
A final thought before leaving these artifacts: Some have described these Black Carib Indians as the offspring of Runaway African Slaves and Non-Black native Indians – even some Black institutions have stupidly accepted that nonsense, which is no surprise. As always when dealing with what the lying Albinos say, one must always think “Critically”. i.e. The British outlawed the Slave trade in 1807, but did not outlaw Slavery until 1833. The painter of these paintings “Augustin Brunias” died in 1796: at the time he painted those people, if what the Albinos say was true: they and their still living parents, would have been subject to re-capture and a return to Slavery. They would certainly not have been allowed such easy movement and social intercourse, for fear their example would have fomented rebellion among Slaves.
A Rising Share of the U.S. Black Population Is Foreign Born 9 Percent Are Immigrants; and While Most Are from the Caribbean, Africans Drive Recent Growth
- By Monica Anderson
- Immigrants Are a Growing Share Among Black Americans … As the Black Immigrant Population Has More than Quadrupled Since 1980A record 3.8 million black immigrants live in the United States today, more than four times the number in 1980, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data. Black immigrants now account for 8.7% of the nation’s black population, nearly triple their share in 1980.
- Rapid growth in the black immigrant population is expected to continue. The Census Bureau projects that by 2060, 16.5% of U.S. blacks will be immigrants.1 In certain metropolitan areas, foreign-born blacks make up a significant share of the overall black population. For example, among the metropolitan areas with the largest black populations, roughly a third of blacks (34%) living in the Miami metro area are immigrants. In the New York metro area, that share is 28%. And in the Washington, D.C., area, it is 15%.
- Jamaica, Haiti Largest Birth Countries for Black Immigrants in 2013Black immigrants are from many parts of the world, but half are from the Caribbean alone.2 Jamaica is the largest source country with about 682,000 black immigrants born there, accounting for 18% of the national total. Haiti follows with 586,000 black immigrants, making up 15% of the U.S. black immigrant population.
- However, much of the recent growth in the size of the black immigrant population has been fueled by African immigration. Between 2000 and 2013, the number of black African immigrants living in the U.S. rose 137%, from 574,000 to 1.4 million. Africans now make up 36% of the total foreign-born black population, up from 24% in 2000 and just 7% in 1980.
- Among black immigrants from Africa, virtually all are from sub-Saharan African countries, with only 1% of all black immigrants from North Africa. Nigeria, with 226,000 immigrants, and Ethiopia, with 191,000, are the two largest birth countries for black African immigrants to the U.S.
- Black immigrants have roots in other parts of the world as well. Some 5% of all black immigrants are from South America and 4% are from Central America; those from Europe make up 2% of the population and those from South and East Asia make up 1%.3
- Caribbean Is Top Birth Region; African Immigration Soared Since 2000Many black immigrants are from Spanish-speaking countries. Among these, the Dominican Republic is the largest country of birth, accounting for 166,000 black immigrants. Mexico is also a source of black immigration with roughly 70,000 black immigrants. Some 41,000 are from Cuba, and 32,000 are Panamanian. Moreover, 11% of the foreign-born black population identifies as Hispanic.
The History of Black Migration to the U.S.
- The United States has long had a significant black population.4 In the nation’s earliest censuses (at the end of the 18th century), blacks accounted for nearly one-fifth of the U.S. population, with nearly all brought to the U.S. as slaves from Africa. Today, most of the nation’s 40 million U.S.-born blacks trace their roots to this population.
- However, due to the outlawing of the slave trade in 1808 as well as restrictions on non-European immigration, the flow of blacks arriving in the U.S. dropped to a trickle for more than a century and a half. Among the black immigrants who voluntarily migrated during this time, most were from the Caribbean.
- Close to a Third of Sub-Saharan African Immigrants Enter the U.S. as RefugeesThe modern wave of black immigration to the U.S. began when U.S. immigration policy changed in the 1960s, becoming more open to a wider variety of migrants. Just like other immigrants, foreign-born blacks benefited from the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 that emphasized family reunification and skilled immigrant labor.5 In addition, the Refugee Act of 1980 loosened immigration restrictions by allowing more immigrants from conflict areas such as Ethiopia and Somalia to seek asylum in the U.S.6 Finally, the U.S. Immigration Act of 1990 sought to increase the number of immigrants from underrepresented nations, and although the act was initially intended to increase the flow of European immigrants, Africans have benefited from the program, as well.7
- This act, also known as the diversity visa program, has been an important way for African immigrants to gain entry into the U.S. About one-in-five sub-Saharan African immigrants (19%) who gained legal permanent residence between 2000 and 2013 entered through this program.
- During the same period, about three-in-ten (28%) sub-Saharan African immigrants arrived in the U.S. as refugees or asylees. That share was only 5% for Caribbean immigrants and 13% for the overall immigrant population. Caribbean immigrants are much more likely to enter the U.S. through family-sponsored
- Caribbean and sub-Saharan African immigrants are less likely to have been granted admittance via employment-based visa programs than immigrants overall.8
A Statistical Portrait of Black Immigrants
- How Black Immigrants Compare to Other Groups, 2013When compared with U.S.-born blacks, foreign-born blacks are older, with a median age of 42 years versus 29 years for U.S.-born blacks. Immigrant blacks ages 25 and older are also more likely than U.S.-born blacks to have a bachelor’s degree or more (26% versus 19%), less likely to live in poverty (20% versus 28%) and on average, have higher household incomes. They’re also much more likely to be married (48% among those ages 18 and older versus 28%) than U.S.-born blacks, which is likely tied to their higher median age.
- Black immigrants share some similarities with the overall U.S. immigrant population in terms of their median ages and poverty rates. However, black immigrants are somewhat more likely to hold U.S. citizenship than all immigrants—54% versus 47%. Given that many black immigrants are from English-speaking Caribbean nations, they’re also more likely to be proficient in English compared with all immigrants (74% versus 50%). Black immigrants are also less likely to be in the U.S. illegally than all immigrants (16% versus 26%).
- Compared with the U.S. population overall, black immigrants have a slightly higher median age (42 years versus 37 years) and among those that are ages 25 and up, are slightly less likely to have a college degree (26% versus 30%). In addition, black immigrants are less likely than all Americans to own their homes (40% versus 64%), and overall they have lower household incomes.
- These findings are based on a Pew Research Center analysis of data from the 2013 American Community Survey in addition to analyses of the 1980, 1990 and 2000 U.S. decennial censuses. The report explores the characteristics of the nation’s black immigrant population in 2013 and how it has changed since 2000. It also compares the characteristics of black immigrants with those of U.S.-born blacks, all U.S. immigrants and the U.S. population.
- Historical Data
Please note: When considering Black population numbers, please remember that Black Latin Americans have been taught to use other, more acceptable words, rather than “Black” to describe themselves. Additionally they are taught that Black is the lowest class of Humans, therefore they seek to advance themselves by marriage to Whites or lighter skinned Blacks.
|Population Year||Dominican Republic||Puerto Rico||Cuba||Antigua||Saint Kitts|
|Total Blacks in 2005||978,450||474,600||1,014,210||72,900||38,700|
- Total Blacks in 2005 for this table = 2,578,860
St. Kitts, Nevis
|Population Year||Montserrat||Dominica||Saint Lucia||Barbados||Saint Vincent||Grenada||Trinidad||Jamaica||Bahamas|
|Total Blacks in 05||3,600||71,100||136,850||243,000||107,100||92,700||456,750||2,385,900||290,|
Trinidad & Tobago
Jamaicans in the United States = Around 740,000, especially in New York City (416,000), Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, South Florida and elsewhere.
Thomas Thistlewood (1721 ‒ 1786) was a British citizen who migrated to western Jamaica where he became a plantation overseer and owner of land, property, and slaves. He is remembered for his diary, an important historical document chronicling the history of Jamaica and slavery during the 18th century.
Known as The Diary of Thomas Thistlewood, Thistlewood’s 14,000-page diary provides a detailed record of his life and deep insight into plantation life from agricultural techniques to slave-owner relations. Thistlewood routinely punished his slaves with fierce floggings and other harsh punishments, some of them very sickening. One of his preferred punishments was the “Derby’s dose” in which a slave would be forced to defecate into an offending slave’s mouth which would then be forced shut via various methods for a considerable number of hours.
Though Thistlewood never married, his sexual exploits were prolific with his diary chronicling 3,852 acts of sexual intercourse and/or rape with 138 women, nearly all of whom were black slaves. He favoured his black slave, Phibbah, a Coromantee (Ghanaian) who essentially became his “wife”. Over their 33-year relationship, Phibbah and Thistlewood developed what Burnard calls “a warm and loving relationship, if such a thing was possible between a slave and her master.” Phibbah would eventually acquire property including land, livestock, and slaves as well as a sufficient “respectability” among white women.
|Population Year||British Guiana Guyana||Honduras||Martinique||Guadaloupe||French Guiana||Saint-Domingue (Haiti)|
|Total Blacks in 2005||225,300||144,100||356,400||224,000||162,570||8,101,600|
- Total Blacks in 2005 for this table = 9,213,970
Honduras contains perhaps the smallest percentage of whites in Latin America, with only 1% classified in this group, or up to 75,000 to 150,000 of the total population. Of these, the majority are people of Spanish descent. A white population, especially descendants of Palestinians, is found in the city of San Pedro Sula, and another in the Bay Islands Department which descends from Caymanian settlers with English, Irish, Scottish, French, German, Italian and Greek descent.
Martinique has a population of 386,486 (January 2013). There are an estimated 260,000 people of Martiniquan origin living in mainland France, most of them in the Paris region. Emigration was highest in the 1970s, causing population growth to almost stop, but it is comparatively light today.
Demography. The 1998 population in French Guiana was approximately 167,982. Around 40 percent of the population lives in the capital of Cayenne. African and Afro-Europeans make up 66 percent of the total population with Europeans making up another 18 percent and east Asians, Chinese, Amerindians, and Brazilians making up the remainder. In the sparsely populated interior the Oyampi and Palik tribes still follow a traditional pre-columbian way of life. There are also a few tribes descended from African slaves who escaped from plantations to live a lifestyle similar to their native central Africa.
The white and the mulatto population of Haiti make up about 15% of its population, while 85% is “black”. However, in that minority group, Haiti is home to people of many different ethnic and national backgrounds who are French, Spanish, Middle Eastern, Portuguese, Russian, Dutch, Swiss, Armenian, Poles (Polish legion), Jews (arriving from the Polish legion and during the Holocaust), Germans (18th century and World War I), and Italian influences.
In the United States alone there are an estimated 975,000 people of Haitian ancestry, according to the 2010 Census;
Guadeloupe has a population of 403,977 (2012).
|Population Year||Brazil||Dutch Caribbean||Dutch Guianas Surinam|
|Total Blacks in 2005||14,912,400||268,800|
- Total Blacks in 2005 for this table = 15,181,200
Brazil is one of the few countries in Latin America that includes racial categories in its censuses: Branco (White), Negro (Black), Pardo (Multiracial), Amarelo (Yellow) and Indígena (Amerindian); categorization is made by self-identification. Taking into account the data provided by the last National Household Survey conducted in 2010, Brazil would possess the most numerous White population in Latin America, given that a 47.7% -91 million people- of Brazilians self-declared “Brancos”. Comparing this survey with previous censuses, a slow but constant decrease in the percentages of self-identified White Brazilians can be noticed: in the 2000 Census it was 53.7%; but in the 2006 Household Survey it was 49.9% and in the last 2008 survey it diminished even more, down to current 48.4%. Some analysts consider that this decreasing as more Brazilians reappreciate their mixed ancestry and then they re-classify themselves as “Pardos”.
Dutch Caribbean = Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten (comprising only the southern half of the island of Saint Martin), Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba.
|Total Blacks in 2005||10,702,900||323,200||4,560,000||4,279,840|
- Total Blacks in 2005 for this table = 19,865,940
- percentage of the white Paraguayan population is not known because the Paraguayan census does not include racial or ethnic identification, save for the indigenous population, which reached 1.7% of the country’s total in the last census in 2002. Other sources estimate the other groups. The mestizo population is estimated at 95% by the CIA World Factbook, and all other groups at 5%. Thus, Whites and the remaining groups (Asians, Afro-Paraguayans, others, if any) combine for approximately 3.3% of the total population. Such reading is complicated, because as elsewhere in Latin America, white and mestizo are not categories that make the other necessarily excluded (people may identify as both), and there was considerable European immigration to Paraguay and surrounding regions, that later immigrated to it. Due to the European migration in the 19th and 20th centuries, the majority of whites are of German descent (including Mennonites), with others being of French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese descent. Many are southern and southeastern Brazilians (brasiguayos) as well Argentines and Uruguayans, and their descendants. People from such regions are generally descendants of colonial settlers and/or more recent immigrants. In 2005, 600 families of Volga Germans who migrated to Germany after the fall of the Soviet Union, re-migrated and established a new colony near Yuty (Caazapá Department), in Southeastern Paraguay, named Neufeld.
- A 2009 DNA study in the American Journal of Human Biology showed the genetic composition of Uruguay as primarily European, with Native American ancestry ranging from one to 20 percent and sub-Saharan African from seven to 15 percent (depending on region). Uruguay received between the mid-19th century and the early 20th century part of the same migratory influx received by Argentina, though the process started a little earlier. During the period 1850-1900, this country welcomed four waves of European immigrants, mainly Spaniards, Italians and Frenchmen. In smaller numbers also arrived British, Germans, Swiss, Russians, Portuguese, Poles, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Estonians, Dutch, Belgians, Croatians, Lebanese, Armenians, Greeks, Scandinavians and Irish. The demographic impact of these immigratory waves was even greater than in Argentina: Uruguay evolved from having 70,000 inhabitants in 1830 to have 450,000 in 1875, and a million inhabitants in 1900; i.e., its population increased fourteen-fold in only 70 years. Between 1840 and 1890, 50%-60% of Montevideo’s population was born abroad, almost all in Europe. The Census conducted in 1860 showed that 35% of the country’s population was made up by foreigners, although by the time of the 1908 Census this figure had decreased to 17%.
The National Institute of Statistics (INE) of Uruguay conducted during 1996-1997 a Continuous Household Survey in 40,000 homes, that included the topic of races in the country. Its results were based on “the explicit statements of the interviewee about the race they consider they belong themselves”. These results were extrapolated, and the INE estimated that out of the 2,790,600 inhabitants that Uruguay had at that moment, some 2,602,200 were White (93.2%), some 164,200 (5.9%) were totally or partially Black, some 12,100 were totally or partially Amerindian (0.4%), and the remaining 12,000 considered themselves Yellow.
A new Enhanced National Household Survey conducted in 2006 touched on the topic again, but this time enfazising on “ancestry” and not on “race”; the results revealed a 5.8% more Uruguayans that stated having total or partial Black and/or Amerindian ancestry. This reduction in the percentage of self-declared “pure Whites” in between surveys could be caused by a phenomenon of the interviewee giving new value to their African heritage, similar to what has happened in Brazil in the three last censuses. Anyway, it is worth noting that 2,897,525 interviewées declared having only White ancestry (87.4%), 302,460 declared having total or partial Black ancestry (9.1%), 106,368 total or partial Amerindian ancestry (2.9%) and 6,549 total or partial Yellow ancestry (0.2%). This figure matches external estimates for White population in Uruguay of 87,4%88%, or 90%.
During the last decade many European and American immigrants have entered this country seeking peace and security, and also escaping from pollution and the voracious tax systems in their countries of origin. In 1997, the Uruguayan government granted residence rights to only 200 European/American citizens; in 2008 the number of residence rights granted had increased up to 927
- Blackout: How Argentina ‘Eliminated’ Africans From Its History And Conscience By Palash Ghosh – 2013
- Hundreds of thousands of Africans were brought there, yet, the black presence in Argentina has virtually vanished from the country’s records and consciousness. According to historical accounts, Africans first arrived in Argentina in the late 16th century in the region now called the Rio de la Plata (actually the number of Africans was 79,804, see database: the rest were Native Americans), which includes Buenos Aires, primarily to work in agriculture and as domestic servants. By the late 18th century and early 19th century, black Africans were numerous in parts of Argentina, accounting for up to half the population in some provinces, including Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Salta and Córdoba.
- In Buenos Aires, neighborhoods like Monserrat and San Telmo housed many black slaves, some of whom were engaged in craft-making for their masters. Indeed, blacks accounted for an estimated one-third of the city’s population, according to surveys taken in the early 1800s. Slavery was officially abolished in 1813, but the practice remained in place until about 1853. Ironically, at about this time, the black population of Argentina began to plunge.
- Historians generally attribute two major factors to this sudden “mass disappearance” of black Africans from the country – the deadly war against Paraguay from 1865-1870 (in which thousands of blacks fought on the frontlines for the Argentine military) as well as various other wars; and the onset of yellow fever in Buenos Aires in 1871. The heavy casualties suffered by black Argentines in military combat created a huge gender gap among the African population – a circumstance that appears to have led black women to mate with whites, further diluting the black population. Many other black Argentines fled to neighboring Brazil and Uruguay, which were viewed as somewhat more hospitable to them. Others claim something more nefarious at work.
- It has been alleged that the president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, sought to wipe out blacks from the country in a policy of covert genocide through extremely repressive policies (including possibly the forced attempts by the government to eliminate them (partially by encouraging large-scale immigration in the late 19th and 20th century from Europe and the Near East). Rather, they remain a hidden and forgotten part of Argentine society. Hisham Aidi, a lecturer at Columbia University’s School of International
Haiti achieved independence in 1803. Thus by 1900, the Haitians had been free for about 100 years. The Haitians then provide us a template for estimating what a normal African society, in the Americas, would produce in terms of life expectancy and population doubling rate over a 100 year period. Note, all numbers are approximations only: they are intended to give only a general understanding of times and events. In many Latin countries, the reluctance of Blacks to identify themselves as Blacks, of course skews the number